Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2019, Page: 25-35
Influence of an Increased Fiber Filler Content on the Elongation Behavior of Filled Films in the Thermoforming Process
Lisa-Maria Wittmann, Institute of Polymer Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
Michael Wolf, Institute of Polymer Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
Dietmar Drummer, Institute of Polymer Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
Received: May 15, 2019;       Accepted: Jun. 15, 2019;       Published: Jun. 26, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajmme.20190302.11      View  637      Downloads  149
Thermoforming belongs to one of the most important processes in polymer processing, especially in the packaging industry. It enables the forming of thermoplastic components into shaped parts at high temperatures. Since the thermoforming of films takes place in the rubbery state, amorphous thermoplastics are mainly processed, which have a wide rubbery state. Radiation crosslinking can be used to widen the thermoforming window of semi-crystalline thermoplastics. A benefit of the crosslinking is the increased short-term temperature resistance. In general, there are only a few investigations concerning the thermoforming of filled thin films. Within this investigation, the influence of an increasing glass fiber content up to 15 vol.-% as well as the effect of radiation crosslinking on the elongation behavior and the wall thickness distribution was examined. It can be summarized that especially thermoforming with an increased filler content at high areal draw ratios represents a challenge. Whereas non-crosslinked glass fiber filled films are thermoformable only at low areal draw ratios, radiation crosslinked films can be also formed at higher areal draw ratios without difficulties. For high filler contents and high areal draw ratios, no forming is possible at high areal draw ratios, although the films have been crosslinked. The use of radiation crosslinking enables the process limit in thermoforming of thin filled films to be increased and thus the range of applications to be extended greatly.
Glass Fiber, Radiation Crosslinking, Elongation Behavior, Wall Thickness Distribution, Thermoforming
To cite this article
Lisa-Maria Wittmann, Michael Wolf, Dietmar Drummer, Influence of an Increased Fiber Filler Content on the Elongation Behavior of Filled Films in the Thermoforming Process, American Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 25-35. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmme.20190302.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Myer Kutz, Applied plastics engineering handbook. Processing, materials, and applications, William Andrew is an imprint of Elsevier, Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2016.
P. Schwarzmann, Thermoformen in der Praxis, Hanser, Munich, 2008.
J. L. Throne, Understanding thermoforming, Hanser, Munich, 2008.
S. Engelmann, Advanced thermoforming: Methods, machines and materials, applications and automation, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
H. C. Lau, S. N. Bhattacharya, and G. J. Field, “Influence of rheological properties on the sagging of polypropylene and abs sheet for thermoforming applications,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1564–1570, 2004.
M. Yamaguchi and K.-I. Suzuki, “Enhanced strain hardening in elongational viscosity for HDPE/crosslinked HDPE blend. II. Processability of thermoforming,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 2002.
M. Yamaguchi, “Rheological properties of linear and crosslinked polymer blends: Relation between crosslink density and enhancement of elongational viscosity,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 228–235, 2000.
A. Charlesby, Atomic radiation and polymers, Pergamon Pr, Oxford u.a., 1960.
K. Makuuchi, Radiation processing of polymer materials and its industrial applications, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
N. Rosenzweig and Narkis, M., Tadmor, Z., “Wall thickness distribution in thermoforming,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 946–951, 1979.
A. Aroujalian, M. O. Ngadi, and J.-P. Emond, “Wall thickness distribution in plug-assist vacuum formed strawberry containers,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 178–182, 1997.
M. O. Lai, “Thickness variation in the thermoforming of poly (methyl methacrylate) and high‐impact polystyrene sheets,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, no. 7, pp. 1805–1814, 1975.
C. Jobey, N. Allanic, and P. Mousseau, Prediction of thickness distribution of thermoformed multilayer ABS/PMMA sheets, American Institute of Physics Inc, AIP Conference Proceedings 1769, 170033 (2016), 2016.
J. Cha, M. Kim, D. Park et al., “Experimental determination of the viscoelastic parameters of K-BKZ model and the influence of temperature field on the thickness distribution of ABS thermoforming,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2019.
J. Holbery and D. Houston, “Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications,” JOM, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 80–86, 2006.
G. Lebrun, M. N. Bureau, and J. Denault, “Thermoforming-Stamping of Continuous Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Composites: Interlaminar and Tool–Laminate Shear Properties,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 137–165, 2004.
D. Lussier and J. Chen, “Material Characterization of Woven Fabrics for Thermoforming of Composites,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 497–509, 2002.
S. Hineno, T. Yoneyama, D. Tatsuno et al., “Fiber Deformation Behavior during Press Forming of Rectangle Cup by Using Plane Weave Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Sheet,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 81, pp. 1614–1619, 2014.
B.-A. Behrens, A. Raatz, S. Hübner et al., “Automated Stamp Forming of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics for Complex Shell Geometries,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 66, pp. 113–118, 2017.
G. Wypych, Handbook of fillers, ChemTec Publishing, Toronto, 2016.
T. P. Mohan and K. Kanny, “Thermoforming studies of corn starch-derived biopolymer film filled with nanoclays,” Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 163–188, 2015.
L. Avérous, C. Fringant, and L. Moro, “Starch-Based Biodegradable Materials Suitable for Thermoforming Packaging,” STARCH-STARKE, vol. 53, pp. 368–371, 2001.
E. L. Sánchez-Safont, A. Aldureid, J. M. Lagarón et al., “Biocomposites of different lignocellulosic wastes for sustainable food packaging applications,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 145, pp. 215–225, 2018.
O. Ekşi and E. Erdogan, “Effects of manufacturing defects on thermoformed product quality,” Usak University Journal of Material Sciences, vol. 3.
K. Landsecker and C. Bonten, “Investigation on the thermoformability of heat conductive plastics,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2055, no. 1, p. 50003, 2019.
K. Landsecker and C. Bonten, “Thermoforming simulation of heat conductive plastic materials using the K-BKZ model,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2065, no. 1, p. 30049, 2019.
K. Landsecker, Zum Thermoformen wärmeleitfäiger Kunststoffe, Institut für Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart, 2018.
G. W. Ehrenstein, Thermal analysis of plastics: Theory and practice, Hanser; Hanser Gardner, Munich, Cincinnati, 2004.
M. Schoßig, Schädigungsmechanismen in faserverstärkten Kunststoffen. Quasistatische und dynamische Untersuchungen, Vieweg + Teubner, Wiesbaden, 2011.
D. Manas, M. Ovsik, A. Mizera et al., “The effect of irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of selected types of polymers,” Polymers, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 158, 2018.
A. Seefried, Zum Thermoformen von vernetztem Polyamid, Lehrstuhl für Kunststofftechnik, Erlangen, 2015.
G. W. Ehrenstein, Faserverbund-Kunststoffe. Werkstoffe, Verarbeitung, Eigenschaften, Hanser, Munich, 2006.
M. Neitzel, P. Mitschang, and U. Breuer, Handbuch Verbundwerkstoffe: Werkstoffe, Verarbeitung, Anwendung, Hanser, Munich, 2014.
Browse journals by subject